Glossary

Coronal Mass Ejections
In 1997 a CME knocked AT&T’s Telstar 401 sattelite out, while in 1989 Quebec suffered a nine hour blackout as a result of a solar storn reaching the Earth.

Dando’s Dogs
In the church in the village of St Germans, just to the north of Mousetrappe, carvings on a pew end illustrate the famous local legend of Bishop Dando and his dogs.
Dando was a monk at St Germans priory in the 5th century who seemed to be more fond of socialising, drinking and hunting than he was of his religious duties. It is said that one hot Sunday morning in July 452, whilst out hunting with his hounds at Erth Barton on the other side of the St Germans river, overcome with thirst, he called for refreshments but the flasks were empty. When no drink was forthcoming a furious Dando screamed, ‘then get it from hell if there’s none left on earth’.
At this a hooded figure appeared before him and offered him a drink from a silver flask that was chained to his arm. In his greed and glutton, Dando took the drink without even looking at the figure. Was it the Devil? Was it a reflection of himself? Whoever, his beverage was so intoxicating that in pursuit of a hare, Dando and the hunting party rode off the banks and into the river where they drowned in the place which has ever since been known as Dandypool.
The name Dando may be a corruption of the name Dawnay or Dandy, of the Lords of Sheviock during the Middle Ages. However the inclusion of a hare in the legend, a creature full of symbolism in British mythology, and the resemblance to the Wild Hunt that appears in the ghostly hunt Dando now drives across the locality, suggest that the myth may be far older, and the current version a more modern corruption.

Edgcumbe
During the Wars of the Roses, Piers Edgcumbe, pursued by his enemies leapt into the Tamar, and swimming away underwater, leaving his hat on the surface, which his enemies riddled with arrows and left, thinking him dead.
Mount Edgcumbe, the family house on the Rame peninsula, was built by Sir Richard Edgcumbe in the years following the dissolution of the monasteries under Henry VIII. It was gutted after being bombed during World War II, but has since been renovated. The original family house, Cotehele, was left undisturbed after the building of Mount Edgcumbe as still keeps its character from the late Middle Ages.

Employment
In 1995 it was estimated that visitors spent some £760 million, of which about one third is retained in Cornwall. The industry accounts for at least 30000 jobs – with many more at the peak of the season. London and Devon are the only areas in the UK that attract more visitors than Cornwall. However, with the pressure from international competition there remains an enormous challenge to raise quality and to invest in the industry and related services.

Filters
There is currently some disagreement about the appropriateness of solar viewers. While we have reproduced the advice of the World Health Organisation, that those with the CE mark are safe to use, HM Government, which gives out the CE mark, begs to differ, saying that nothing is safe. However, the Government’s own eclipse panel disagrees with them and agree with WHO – so what is what and who is who is anyone’s guess. The safest thing to say seems to be: do not allow children to look at an eclipse, with or without viewers, and exercise caution oneself. Nothing is without risk.

Gig Race
Gig Racing, the racing of small, fast boats powered by eight oars, has its origins in Cornwall’s notorious wrecking history. The first group to a wreck had a claim to whatever they could take off of it, so the ability to beat a rival village in your gig could bring great benefits to a locality.

Herne
Herne was, allegedly, a game keeper in Windsor Great Forest during the reign of Richard II. According to the most often told story Herbe saved the life of the King during a hunt by laying down his own. As he lay dying a wizard appeared who told the king that he could save Herne’s life by tying the stag’s antlers to Herne’s head. This done Herne was revived and the King made him chief game keeper. The other keepers were jealous, however, and managed to get the King to dismiss Herne, who promptly went out and hung himself. He has haunted the Great Park ever since, with antlers on his head, decked about with chains, riding a black horse.
The antlers seem to suggest that Herne is in fact a faint memory of the Celtic god Cernunnos, a god of the Underworld.

Lunar Eclipse
When the Moon enters the penumbra, a penumbral eclipse occurs. The dimming of the Moon’s illumination by the penumbra is so slight as to be scarcely noticeable, and penumbral eclipses are rarely watched. After a part of the Moon’s surface is in the umbra and thus darkened, the Moon is said to be in partial eclipse. After about an hour, when the whole disk of the Moon is within the umbra, the eclipse becomes total. If the Moon’s path leads through the centre of the umbra, the total eclipse can be expected to last about an hour and three-quarters.

Mineral
Emergence and submergence of the whole peninsula from time to time helped to weather the granite and plane away the softer surrounding rocks to leave raised beaches and flat platforms between the moors and the coast. Examples of these landscapes can be found at the Scilly Isles, Land’s End, Carnmenellis, St Austell and Bodmin Moor. Granite decomposed by steam during its formation has left deposits of white kaolinite, giving Cornwall some of the finest clays in the world.
Different rocks are found at the Lizard, where serpentine, gabbros and schists have been forced up. These rocks have been valued since prehistoric times for the manufacture of tools and pottery.
North Cornwall largely comprises of shales and limestones laid down when the land was submerged beneath the sea. This process also formed the sandstones and mudstones which cover the greater part of the surface of Cornwall.

Odin
Odin was chief of the Aesir, the Norse Gods. Known as the All-Father he was partly a god of War, but also a god of language and magic, the two of which being seen as indivisable. Odin spent three days crucified on Yggdrasil, the World Ash, to bring the runes, instruments of language and magic, to mankind, and gave his left eye to the Giant Mimir for the gift of prophecy. He is accompanied by two ravens, Hunin and Mugin, Thought and Memory, and has a throne from which he can observe the entirety of Midgard, the world of men. The Germanic god Woden is a related form of Odin.

Partial Eclipse
As the moon, from the point of view of the Earth, processes across the face of the Sun, it casts two kinds of shadow on the surface of the Earth. In direct line with the moon and the sun there is the umbra, which is surrounded by the much wider penumbra.
To an observer within the umbra, the Sun’s disk appears completely covered by the disk of the Moon; such an eclipse is called total. To an observer within the penumbra, the Moon’s disk appears projected against the Sun’s disk so as to overlap it partly; a partial eclipse.
The umbra cone is narrow at the distance of the Earth, and a total eclipse is observable only within the narrow strip of land or sea over which the umbra passes. A partial eclipse may be seen from places within the large area covered by the penumbra.
Sometimes the Earth intercepts the penumbra of the Moon but is missed by its umbra; only a partial eclipse of the Sun is then observed anywhere on the Earth.

Pinhole
Take two pieces of card. Fix one as a ‘screen’ so that it is more or less perpendicular to the Sun. Take the other piece of card and pierce a small hole in it. Then hold it above the screen, moving it back and forth until you get a focussed image of the sun through the pinhole.

Predicting eclipses
Astronomers can predict very accurately the exact time that an eclipse will take place and how many hours and minutes it will last. They are also able to tell in advance whether an eclipse will be “total”, “annular” or “partial”
The ancient Chinese believed that eclipses were caused by the sun being eaten by a dragon. As a result at the time of eclipses they beat gongs and drums in order to drive the dragon away. One Emperor employed two astronomers, Hsi and Ho to predict the next eclipse, so that the people could be ready. The next eclipse, however, came unannounced, and the people were unprepared. Fortunately the dragon was apparently hungry and left without consuming the sun. Less fortunately the Emperor discovered that His and Ho had been drunk and had them executed.

Prisoners of the Sun
(Le Temple du Soleil) The Adventures of Tintin, by Herge, 1949.

SOHO
Solar Heliospheric Observatory – a satellite based observatory orbiting the Sun, which employs an artificial eclipse to examine the Sun’s corona.

Stonehenge
It may be that Stonehenge, with its references to the Sun and Moon, is designed to predict solar eclipses.
The Aubrey Holes, the 56 chalk-filled holes (named for John Aubrey) that mark the outer ring of Stonehenge, may have served as “counters” to help in marking the cycles needed to predict eclipses.

Total Eclipse
As the moon, from the point of view of the Earth, processes across the face of the Sun, it casts two kinds of shadow on the surface of the Earth. In direct line with the moon and the sun there is the umbra, which is surrounded by the much wider penumbra.
To an observer within the umbra, the Sun’s disk appears completely covered by the disk of the Moon; such an eclipse is called total. To an observer within the penumbra, the Moon’s disk appears projected against the Sun’s disk so as to overlap it partly; a partial eclipse.
The umbra cone is narrow at the distance of the Earth, and a total eclipse is observable only within the narrow strip of land or sea over which the umbra passes. A partial eclipse may be seen from places within the large area covered by the penumbra.
Sometimes the Earth intercepts the penumbra of the Moon but is missed by its umbra; only a partial eclipse of the Sun is then observed anywhere on the Earth.

Tourism
Cornwall is one of the major holiday areas in Great Britain. More than four million visitors are now attracted annually to the spectacular coastal scenery and fine beaches. At the peak of the season there are 275,000 visitors to the county, which adds more than 50% to the all year population. The eclipse is expected to greatly increase these peak figures; there have been estimates that up to an additional one million visitors over the normal peak figure will be coming to Cornwall in August 1999.

Yule
In a world where all that is left of Yule is the Beatles wish of a ‘Cool Yule and a Gear New Year’ and a chocolate cake incongruously termed a log, it is easy to forget that the 25th of December is not just a Christian festival. Yule itself was a Norse festival, celebrating the goddess Freya, but as a mid-winter festival is marked by many cultures, ancient and modern. Brewers lists the following:
Christians hold December 25th as the anniversary of the birth of Jesus.
China on the same day celebrates the birth of Buddha, son of Mâa. (Bunsen).
Druids held during the winter solstice the festival of Nolagh. (Higgins).
Egypt held that Horus, son of Isis, was born towards the close of December (Le Clerk de Septehenes).
Greece celebrated in the winter solstice the birth of Demeer (Cercs), Dionyos (Bacchus), and Herakle (Hercules).
India. Numerous Indian tribes keep Yuletide as a religious festival. (Monier Williams).
Mexico holds in the winter solstice the festival of Capacrame (History of the Indies, vol. ii. p. 354.)
Persia at the same period honours the birth of Mithras. (Gross.)
Rome celebrated on December 25th the festival “Natais Solis Invicta”
Scandinavia held at Yuletide the festival called Jul, in honour of Freya, wife of Odin.
This Yule celebration in the Tirol was described by J.V. v. Zingerle in 1857:
“The Perchtenlauf was earlier usual on the last Fasching-evening. It was a kind of masked procession. The masked ones were called Perchten. They were divided into beautiful and ugly…. The beautiful Perchten often distributed gifts. So went it loudly and joyfully, if the wild Perchte herself did not come among them. If this spirit mixed among them, the game was dangerous. One could recognize the presence of the wild Perchte when the Perchten raged all wild and furious and sprang over the well-stock. In this case the Perchten ran swiftly away from each other in fear and tried to reach the nearest, best house. For as soon as one was under a roof, the Wild One could not have them any longer. Otherwise she would tear apart anyone, who she could get possession of. Even today, one can see places where the Perchten torn apart by the wild Perchte lie buried”